Read the history and works of Flavius Josephus

Flavius Josephus was a first century historian whose work was useful and informative to better understand the Jewish culture of the times.

The Wars of the Jews
It is valuable, beyond measure, to study history.  It is not only our gateway into the past, but as history seems to often repeat itself, it is many times a portal to understand current events and our future.  Josephus provides another look into biblical times which increases our understanding of the setting in which the scriptures took place.

I have provided links below to some of his works.  You can buy a paper copy of his book like the one that I have on my shelf or you can get a digital copy of his work translated into English from

If you would like to go further in your studies of Josephus take a look at the Perseus Digital Library.  Here are some links to some of Josephus’ works written in Greek.

Clicking the link below in English will take you to Wikipedia.  Clicking the second link written in Latin will take you to the Perseus page where you can study the work in Greek.


 Antiquities of the Jews,  Antiquitates Judaicae.

 Against Apion,  Contra Apionem.

 War of the Jews Book 7De bello Judaico libri vii

 The Life of Flavius JosephusJosephi vita.


Here is a book from that has the War of the Jews and Against Apion printed with parallel columns of Greek and Latin.

Flavii Josephi Opera Graece et Latine.

Here is another Greek and Latin copy of Josephus

Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου – Flavii Iosephi

You can look at some of the early manuscripts of Josephus on the Biblioteca Ambrosiana website.  The site is in Italian and they require a subscription to view their digital images.


If you do a search of both Google books and you should be able to find more examples and translations into different languages.

King James Bible With Parallel Greek and Hebrew

This is a PDF Bible that I would love to have in print.  This Bible has the Masoretic Hebrew text on one side and the King James Bible on the other side.  In the New Testament it has Scrivener‘s Greek New Testament, (Received Text, Textus Receptus).  What would make this Bible absolutely perfect would be the inclusion of the word study dictionaries in the back of the KJV Key Word Study Bible by AMG.

Permission has been granted by the editor of this PDF to use and distribute his work freely for nonprofit purposes, both in electronic format and in hardcopy, in order to further the study of the Holy Scriptures in the original tongues.

King James Bible with Parallel Greek and Hebrew link

Chazak, chazak v’nitchazek! Be Strong, be strong and let us (intensively) be strengthened!


Be Strong, be strong and let us (intensively) be strengthened!


This is a phrase that reverberates through the room at the completion of the reading of a Torah scroll.  It is a public call to be strengthened by the reading of God’s word.IMG_2591

In a Jewish synagogue the scroll is rolled back to the beginning after completing in order to be read again.

חזק  –  Be strong, be firm, be established, be strengthened.  (Kal imperative)

ונתחזק  –  Let us be strengthened, be established, be confirmed, show ourselves strong, show ourselves courageous.  (Same root as above but Hithpael 1 person plural)

In the text of 2 Samuel 10:12 this text appears as:  חֲזַ֤ק וְנִתְחַזַּק֙

 Only be thou strong and very courageous

Joshua 1:7

Only be thou strong and very courageous, that thou mayest observe to do according to all the law, which Moses my servant commanded thee: turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest prosper whithersoever thou goest.

 רַק֩ חֲזַ֨ק וֶֽאֱמַ֜ץ מְאֹ֗ד לִשְׁמֹ֤ר לַעֲשׂוֹת֙ כְּכָל־הַתּוֹרָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר צִוְּךָ֙ מֹשֶׁ֣ה עַבְדִּ֔י אַל־תָּס֥וּר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ יָמִ֣ין וּשְׂמֹ֑אול לְמַ֣עַן תַּשְׂכִּ֔יל בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תֵּלֵֽךְ׃

 ἴσχυε οὖν καὶ ἀνδρίζου φυλάσσεσθαι καὶ ποιεῖν καθότι σοι Μωυσῆς ὁ παῖς μου καὶ οὐκ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν εἰς δεξιὰ οὐδὲ εἰς ἀριστερά ἵνα ἐν πᾶσιν οἷς ἐὰν πράσσῃς

We are told in this passage to be strong or to show ourselves strong and to be “very”, מְאֹ֗ד, courageous.  There is a big job to do for those that love the Lord and it will take all of the strength and courage that you do not currently have.  Your strength will come from the Lord and from his Word.  Notice that the promice for the Lord’s blessing is contingent on following the Bible.   He wants to bless us “whithersoever thou goest” and wants to give us direction to keep us on the correct path, “turn not from it to the right hand or to the left“.  I love how the LXX uses the word ἀνδρίζου, be manly, be a man, show oneself to be a man.  We must cast aside the things that cause us to not live up to what God would have for us and run the race set before us with diligence.

I was reading in the book of Daniel, when I came across the beautiful passage, where He had been strengthened by the angel of the Lord before hearing the words of the vision concerning the future.  The angel had told him, “אַל־תִּירָ֧א אִישׁ־חֲמֻד֛וֹת שָׁל֥וֹם לָ֖ךְ חֲזַ֣ק וַחֲזָ֑ק“, “O man greatly beloved, fear not: peace be unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong.”  Daniel 10:19.  As soon as the angel of the Lord had helped him to be strong, Daniel was ready to receive all of the words from the angel.  He had said, “And when he had spoken unto me, I was strengthened (הִתְחַזַּ֔קְתִּי, intensive form, “I was intensively strengthened“), and said, Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.   God has the power to strengthen us, help us and sustain us in all of the walks of life that He leads us through.

Have the courage to trust him for the journey and the battle.

 Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might.

Ephesians 6:10