Category Archives: Resources for Old Testament Studies

Resources the have a better knowledge of the Old Testament scriptures.

Chazak, chazak v’nitchazek! Be Strong, be strong and let us (intensively) be strengthened!


Be Strong, be strong and let us (intensively) be strengthened!


This is a phrase that reverberates through the room at the completion of the reading of a Torah scroll.  It is a public call to be strengthened by the reading of God’s word.IMG_2591

In a Jewish synagogue the scroll is rolled back to the beginning after completing in order to be read again.

חזק  –  Be strong, be firm, be established, be strengthened.  (Kal imperative)

ונתחזק  –  Let us be strengthened, be established, be confirmed, show ourselves strong, show ourselves courageous.  (Same root as above but Hithpael 1 person plural)

In the text of 2 Samuel 10:12 this text appears as:  חֲזַ֤ק וְנִתְחַזַּק֙

 Only be thou strong and very courageous

Joshua 1:7

Only be thou strong and very courageous, that thou mayest observe to do according to all the law, which Moses my servant commanded thee: turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest prosper whithersoever thou goest.

 רַק֩ חֲזַ֨ק וֶֽאֱמַ֜ץ מְאֹ֗ד לִשְׁמֹ֤ר לַעֲשׂוֹת֙ כְּכָל־הַתּוֹרָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר צִוְּךָ֙ מֹשֶׁ֣ה עַבְדִּ֔י אַל־תָּס֥וּר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ יָמִ֣ין וּשְׂמֹ֑אול לְמַ֣עַן תַּשְׂכִּ֔יל בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תֵּלֵֽךְ׃

 ἴσχυε οὖν καὶ ἀνδρίζου φυλάσσεσθαι καὶ ποιεῖν καθότι σοι Μωυσῆς ὁ παῖς μου καὶ οὐκ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν εἰς δεξιὰ οὐδὲ εἰς ἀριστερά ἵνα ἐν πᾶσιν οἷς ἐὰν πράσσῃς

We are told in this passage to be strong or to show ourselves strong and to be “very”, מְאֹ֗ד, courageous.  There is a big job to do for those that love the Lord and it will take all of the strength and courage that you do not currently have.  Your strength will come from the Lord and from his Word.  Notice that the promice for the Lord’s blessing is contingent on following the Bible.   He wants to bless us “whithersoever thou goest” and wants to give us direction to keep us on the correct path, “turn not from it to the right hand or to the left“.  I love how the LXX uses the word ἀνδρίζου, be manly, be a man, show oneself to be a man.  We must cast aside the things that cause us to not live up to what God would have for us and run the race set before us with diligence.

I was reading in the book of Daniel, when I came across the beautiful passage, where He had been strengthened by the angel of the Lord before hearing the words of the vision concerning the future.  The angel had told him, “אַל־תִּירָ֧א אִישׁ־חֲמֻד֛וֹת שָׁל֥וֹם לָ֖ךְ חֲזַ֣ק וַחֲזָ֑ק“, “O man greatly beloved, fear not: peace be unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong.”  Daniel 10:19.  As soon as the angel of the Lord had helped him to be strong, Daniel was ready to receive all of the words from the angel.  He had said, “And when he had spoken unto me, I was strengthened (הִתְחַזַּ֔קְתִּי, intensive form, “I was intensively strengthened“), and said, Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.   God has the power to strengthen us, help us and sustain us in all of the walks of life that He leads us through.

Have the courage to trust him for the journey and the battle.

 Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might.

Ephesians 6:10



Listen to the Bible in Hebrew

The best way to learn a language is to be exposed to it constantly.  When being exposed to a language that you are learning, use the Bible as that source.  You will not only gain understanding in the language that you are learning, but also grow in your knowledge and love of the scripture.  Here are a few resources to aid you in learning the Hebrew language.


Studying Daniel Chapter 9 in the Greek.

One of my goals this year has been going through the Old Testament Scriptures in Greek.  While going through the verses I have been comparing the usage with the Hebrew and Latin.

There is enough to stay busy, however, in just comparing Greek Septuagint manuscripts.  Here are some texts that you can reference in your study in order to check agreement between various codex.

I have been studying through the book of Daniel lately.  Here is a passage from Daniel 9 from the Codex Alexandrinus:

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Here is part of the Chapter from the Complutensian Polyglot:


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Here is part of the Chapter from Charles Van der Pool’s Apostolic Bible Polyglot: